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Veröffentlicht am Dienstag 22 Juni 2004 03:38:26 von Juergen
fuv.jpgBy Graciela González De Tapia (en,es)

English Spanish
There is no doubt that when one is set to the task of stating the problems involved in the teacher training process, one must think about which books must be read, which topics must be prepared, the ways of expanding the knowledge, the ways of reasoning and explaining the different subjects as well as many other things closely related to dydactics.

However, none of these things are part of my main worries.

Any teacher who spends all of her time with her students, who in turn demand a hundred percent of the teacher’s attention continually, will have to learn by means of practice, what the written word has not taught her.

All cognitive needs branch of from a given topic into three or four more; they spring up from the first one and in next to nothing, the idea of covering or following a syllabus, ends up being a never ending story.

The need to give serious thought about a series of underlying assumptions which at a time seemed unquestionable has been more and more frequent.

Among these assumptions we find syllabi, home works, exams, evaluations and goodness knows how many other pedagogical bureaucratic rules and processes.

This has led to the conclusion that none of these assumptions can neither govern nor be the main guide of the school life.

On the other hand, one must focus the priorities towards more momentous matters which tell us how to fulfil the educational function rather than telling us about its aim or purpose.

I no longer believe that the learning process is the last stop in our teaching road, but rather it is the way of traveling along the road as far as efficiency, productivity and an action eminently educational is concerned.

All this implies that the teacher’s empathy with the children is fundamental. It goes without saying that there are children and teachers who hit it off with each other immediately.

Just as it can also be the other way round. Teacher and student can’t get along with each other, which as far as an emotional level is concerned, not only is it quite difficult to control but it is also determinated by both sides.

Those kids who are satisfied and fulfilled emotionally; who feel backed up and loved in their family environment, turn out to be rather attentive and docile students.

They are always willing to work. This is not so with those kids who somehow arrive to school feeling annoyed, irascible and to make matters worse, having serious emotional problems.

All these kids who refuse to collaborate and whose attitude is that of a never-ending challenge, put to the test the resistance, self-control and the overall vocational training of the teacher.

Emotional fulfilled teachers are people who can easily relate both to their fellow human being in general and especially to the kids who are always open to a wide range of creative and enthusiastic possibilities in their lessons.

Would it be fair to assess that those teachers who on the contrary, get to school annoyed, irascible and grumpy, put the kid’s resistance to the test?

There are teachers who are excellent knowledge transmitters. They can also be very creative apart from being full of ideas to make their lessons quite interesting. Never the less, this is no guarantee of a training free from a series of prejudice however serious or slight, which somehow prevents the teacher from listening intently, from getting a better understanding and from giving the kids a better care.

Sometimes when they are good at their job; when they consider themselves the best, they may even get to the point of imposing on their pupils quite questionable tasks in a rather arbitrarily manner. It is no wonder then that we sometimes can hear some mother say: “Well, this teacher is quite good but she never hit it off with my son and believe me, it was quite a difficult year for all of us”.

There are some other cases in which the teachers instead of encouraging tolerance, mutual help and other natural values, impose upon their classes methods of working which not only disrupt the natural children’s dynamics but push them into pointing their finger at each other, and even into discriminating one another.

Apart from worrying about the teacher’s academic curriculum, I worry about the hidden curriculum. In other words, the one which shapes (or unshapes) the students on the way according to the human being attitudes the teacher has and which in turn, have nothing to do with her teacher’s training performance.

It can be said that a frequent case is that of the teacher who is usually understanding and affectionate with his students but who carries, as a little stone in her shoe, the pupil whom I resist addressing as “the problem kid”. Sometimes this kid doesn’t follow us but some others he even surpasses us. What is also a fact, is that either with his resistance or with his initiatives, he has more strength than us and he beats us continually. I personally think that when a child eventually hears his or her teacher saying “Get out of the class”; the kid has finally defeated the teacher. The fact that the teacher had actually failed to interest or convince him, is tacit. Just as it is also implicit that it is essential to have enough patience to get to know and understand the child’s needs and conflicts more closely. It then, goes with out saying that the approach the teacher has had towards the kid hasn’t been good enough to succeed in getting real and beneficial changes in the kid’s behavior.

Although we have already coined the phrase “the kid who is the most difficult for you is the one who needs you most”, we still have to reflect more deeply on it. We still have to assimilate it more deeply, we still have to make every effort to welcome these kids who are very often so hurt. We should try and love them; make them feel our affection instead of being the ones who hurt them too.

It’s a must not to despair, especially about not seeing the immediate fruit. It’s also a must to have the patience of loving and being capable of waiting.

What worries me most about the teaching training process, is how to develop or increase in the teacher the sensitivity needed to be able to welcome the students without making any distinctions or rejections; without having any dislikes to the kids or to their parents. Having instead the sensitivity needed to discourage any pointing of fingers at any one.

There are several other points which worry me about the “making of teachers”. First of all there is the incapability to put a stop to over sensitivities and prejudice. The way in which the teacher can become more open-minded and understanding. The fact that the teacher should accept and love the kids just the way they are; with all their qualities and defects for which in the end, the kids themselves are not responsible.

To guide them strengthening what ever positive features they have, instead of stressing their negative ones or their faults.

Apart from all these things, what worries me most about the making of a teacher is that we have to learn how to correct our students without hurting them; that we must avoid to the utmost, threatening and punishing them.

All these worries can be overcome when at practice, provided we accept and bear in mind the facts that on the one hand, we all make mistakes every day and we wish to make amends. On the other hand, we all must be aware and convinced that which ever way we influence the kids in the structuring of their personalities, it is in fact our very own and direct responsibility.

In short, I care for a special making of teachers. A making which goes beyond the field of mere dydactics in order to move into the field of what is deeply human.

Al plantear la problemática de la formación de maestros, se tiene que pensar en libros que leer, indudablemente temas que preparar, expansión del conocimiento, modos de razonar y de explicar las asignaturas, y muchas cuestiones más, íntimamente relacionadas con la didáctica.

No son éstas mi mayor preocupación.

Un maestro, al estar tiempo completo con los niños, que demandan continuamente el cien por ciento de su atención tendrá que aprender en la práctica lo que los libros no le enseñan. Las necesidades cognoscitivas se ramifican, de un tema tratado surgen tres o cuatro más, y aquello de terminar un programa, o seguir un programa, se vuelve el cuento de nunca acabar.

Ha sido necesario reflexionar mucho y muy seguido sobre una serie de supuestos, al parecer incuestionables, sobre programas, tareas, exámenes, calificaciones y qué se yo cuántos burocratismos pedagógicos más, para llegar a la conclusión de que ninguno de ellos puede ni debe ser rector de la vida escolar y que las prioridades han de enfocarse a asuntos más trascendentes, que hablen más de cómo realizar la función educativa, que del fin mismo que se persigue.

No creo ya que el aprendizaje sea la última parada de nuestro camino docente, sino la manera de andar el camino, en cuanto a eficiencia, productividad y acción eminentemente educadora.

Esto implica que la empatía del maestro con los niños, sus alumnos, sea fundamental.

Es innegable que hay niños y maestros que hacen un “clic” inmediato, como de repente se da también un “anti-clic” que es difícil de controlar en el plano de los afectos, y que está determinado por ambas partes. Los niños emocionalmente satisfechos, que se sienten apoyados y queridos en su entorno familiar, resultan alumnos atentos, dóciles, siempre dispuestos al trabajo. No así los que de alguna manera llegan a la escuela molestos, irascibles, irritados y a veces con francos conflictos emocionales.

Estos niños, que se resisten a colaborar y cuya actitud es de un eterno reto, ponen a prueba la resistencia, el control personal y la formación general del docente.

Los maestros emocionalmente satisfechos son personal que con facilidad se relacionan con el prójimo en general y con los niños en particular, siempre abiertos a toda una gama de posibilidades creativas y entusiastas en sus clases.

¿Sería válido decir que aquellos que por el contrario, llegan a la escuela molestos, irascibles, irritados, ponen a prueba la resistencia de los niños?

Hay maestros que son excelentes transmisores del conocimiento, y que son creativos y están llenos de ideas para hacer sus clases interesantes. Esto no garantiza que en su formación no existan una serie de prejuicios, grandes o pequeños, que les impidan escuchar mejor, comprender mejor, y atender mejor a los niños.

Algunas veces, por ser muy buenos, por considerarse los mejores, resultan también bastante intolerantes, desarrollan actitudes de primadona e imponen obligaciones a sus alumnos en forma arbitraria, que de repente resultan bastante cuestionables. No es extraño escuchar a una mamá que diga: “Pues fulano es un excelente maestro, pero con mi hijo hizo corto circuito, fue un año muy difícil para todos”.

En otros casos los maestros imponen dinámicas en sus grupos que perturban la dinámica natural de los niños, y que los empujan a competir entre ellos, a señalarse e incluso a discriminarse, en vez de fomentar la camaradería, la tolerancia, la ayuda mutua y otros valores que les son naturales. Además del currículum académico del maestro, me preocupa el currículum oculto, aquel que va formando a los alumnos (o deformándolos) según las actitudes que el maestro tiene como persona, independientemente de su formación docente.

Un caso frecuente es el del maestro que en general es comprensivo y cariñoso con sus alumnos, pero carga como piedrita en el zapato al niño que me resisto a llamar “problema”.

El niño problema a veces no nos sigue, pero a veces nos sobrepasa. Lo que sí es un hecho, es que sea con su resistencia, o con sus iniciativas, tiene más fuerza que nosotros y, continuamente gana la partida. Creo que un niño que finalmente oye a su maestro decir “sal del salón”, le ganó la partida al maestro.

En ese “sal del salón” está implícito que el maestro no encontró la forma de interesarlo, o de convencerlo, que le faltó la paciencia que se necesita para conocer y entender más íntimamente sus necesidades y sus conflictos, que el acercamiento que ha tenido con ese niño no ha sido lo suficientemente profundo para que logre cambios conductuales que realmente lo beneficien.

Aunque hemos acuñado esta frase, “el niño que te cuesta más trabajo, es el que más te necesita” nos hace falta reflexionar más profundamente sobre ella, asimilarla más, hacer un esfuerzo más auténtico para recibir a este niño, o estos niños, que a veces están tan lastimados, y tratar de quererlos, y hacerles sentir nuestro cariño, en vez de seguirlos lastimando también nosotros.

Y no desesperarse, sobre todo, no desesperarse por no ver los frutos inmediatos, tener la paciencia de saber querer y saber esperar.

Desarrollar o acrecentar en el maestro la sensibilidad para poder recibir a los niños sin distinciones, ni rechazos, ni señalamientos, ni antipatías hacia ellos o hacia sus padres. Olvidarse de susceptibilidades y de prejuicios, hacerse de una mente más abierta y comprensiva, aceptar y querer a los niños como son, con sus cualidades y defectos, de los cuales no son finalmente responsables; conducirlos reforzando lo que de positivo hay en ellos, en vez de señalar lo negativo; aprender a corregirlos sin lastimarlos; evitar al máximo amenazarlos y castigarlos, es lo que más me preocupa en la formación del maestro. Esta formación sólo se puede dar en el ejercicio de la profesión, con la aceptación de que todos los días cometemos errores, en el deseo auténtico de enmendarlos, con la convicción de que lo que influyamos en los niños, tanto positiva como negativamente, es nuestra responsabilidad directa en la estructuración de su personalidad.

En suma, me preocupa una formación del maestro que trascienda el campo de lo meramente didáctico para incursionar en el de lo profundamente humano.

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